1: The charge usually is filed by a security officer employed by a store.
There are several ways one can commit shoplifting. The most common way is for someone to take an item and carry it out of the store without paying for it.
Another shoplifting violation is when someone removes a price tag and replaces it with a price tag that is less than the discarded price tag.
A similar form of shoplifting is when someone changes the box or container that the merchandise was originally in, in order to pay less than the correct price for the item.
A common misconception is that you must leave the store with the merchandise. You could be charged with shoplifting by just putting the item in your pocket without ever leaving the store. The same holds true for switching the price tags on the boxes. You can be charged with shoplifting without ever making it to the cashier.